3/26/2020 0 Comments
Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate Via Fischer Esterification Essay Isopentyl acetate, banana oil, is a naturally occurring compound that has a very distinct and recognizable odor. It is most commonly found in bananas but also can be found in other organisms. The purpose of this lab was to synthesize the ester isopentyl acetate via an acid catalyzed esterification (Fischer Esterification) of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol. Emil Fischer and Arthur Speier were the pioneers of this reaction referred to as Fischer Esterification. The reaction is characterized by the combining of an alcohol and an acid (with an acid catalyst) to yield and ester plus water. In order to accomplish the reaction, the reactants were refluxed for an hour to yield the product. The advantages of using this particular esterification process is that is fairly simple to set up and recreate, as long as the proper acidic conditions are present. Experimental Section: The first step in this experiment was to set up a ring stand which will hold the glassware while the reflux process is occurring. After the ring stand was set up, a heating mantle was placed underneath the round-bottom flask and two rubber hoses were attached to the condensing tube. Now that the instruments were set up, the reagents were ready to be weighed and then added. Approximately 5 ml of isopentyl alcohol was added to a 10 ml graduated cylinder. Next, a 25 ml round bottom flask was placed on a cork ring and then tared on the balance. The alcohol was then added to the flask and the mass was recorded in a notebook. 7 ml of acetic acid was then added to the 10 ml graduated cylinder and then transferred to the 25 ml round bottom flask which already contained the alcohol. Approximately 1 ml of concentrated H2SO4 was added to the 25 ml round bottom flask and the mixture was swirled. Finally, a boiling chip was added to the round bottom flask and the reflux procedure was ready to commence. Water was then circulated through the condenser and the reaction was refluxed for an hour. After an hour went by, the reaction was removed from the mantel, while the condenser still circulated with water, and the mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature. Once cooled, the mixture was then transferred to a separatory funnel using the funnel while avoiding adding the boiling chip. 10 ml of water was then added to the mixture. The mixture was gently shaken and the phases were allowed to separate. The funnel was then unstopped and the lower aqueous phase was drained into a beaker. 5 ml of 5% aqueous NaHCO3 was added and then shaken gently. A great deal of caution was taken into consideration because of the production of carbon dioxide gas which caused pressure to develop inside the funnel. The pressure needed to be released so the funnel was vented frequently. The phases were allowed to separate and the lower aqueous phases was drained into the beaker. After draining, 5 ml of saturated NaCl was added to the funnel and then shaken gently. Once again, the phases were allowed to separate and the lower aqueous phase was drained into a beaker. An ester product was produced and was transferred into a 25 ml Erlenmeyer flask. This organic product was then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 to trap small amounts of water in its crystal lattices thus removing it from the product. Finally the ester was decanted, so that the drying agent was excluded from the final product. Results and Discussion: Fischer esterification is the primary way of synthesizing this ester. The reactants involved in this reaction are isopentyl alcohol and acetic acid. Fischer esterification is the nucleophilic addition of isopentyl alcohol to the carbonyl group of the protonated acetic acid. Nucleophilic addition is followed by elimination of a proton. An unstable tetrahedral intermediate forms. This intermediate undergoes dehydration and reforms the carbonyl group. Reformation of the carbonyl group forms the isopentyl acetate. The driving force behind the mechanism of this reaction is the acidic environment. Conclusion: Fischer esterification is a very simple and useful method that anyone with a slight knowledge of chemistry could accomplish. It is widely utilized throughout the world of chemistry and can be used to produce many products, including isopentyl acetate.
When you ask people why they followed their leader or what made their leader great, most would use words like charismatic, honest, trustworthy and confident. So this begs the question, are these all qualities that are born or learned? According to Websterâ€™s dictionary, charisma is a â€œspiritual power or personal quality that gives an individual influence or authority over large numbers of people. â€ So a charismatic leader can be defined as a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as a person with supernatural or superhuman powers or qualities.So with that said, can that be learned over time or simply just polished? How can those qualities or characteristics be taught? We can take a charismatic person and polish or refine them to be better leaders but charisma, according to the definition cannot be taught. According to Dr. Joe Pace in â€œThe Workplace: Interpersonal Strengths and Leadershipâ€ he describes three qualities to what makes a good leader. â€œA good leader used his or her authority to do three things: motivate, manage and make Decisions. (Pace-84) So by this definition one would assume that these characteristics can be learned. Through mentorship in the workplace one can be taught when to make the decision, how to manage personnel and how to motivate people. After all, the human resources division in the professional work environment spends countless hours and dollars training personnel on learning how to effectively motivate their personnel and manage them correctly. So in this example it would appear that leadership can be learned.I have been told by many that I command presence when I walk into a room. For years it would bother me that so many people found it necessary to touch me, to find a way to brush up against me or reach out and hold my arm as I was talking to them. I use to ask my wife all the time â€œwhy do so many people find it necessary to touch me? â€ She tried to explain to me that people wanted to see if I was real and that I carried such a positive aura about me that commanded respect, attention and confidence and some people needed or wanted to be a part of that.I use to laugh it off and tell her she was crazy but this has been happening since I can remember. I remember being in middle school going to watch my brothers play high school football and when I would talk to my older brothers the girls would always put their hands on me to tussle my hair, grab me to hug me or even put an arm around me and I use to just find it odd but always just chalked it up to girls liking my brothers. As I got older I noticed the same things happening to me and sometimes to the point of feeling uncomfortable about the situation.So again I would ask my wife the same question and her reply became â€œjust because you are older and heavier than you were twenty years ago, your presence is still known when you walk into a room and people want to be part of you. You need to learn to embrace it, accept it and just know that this will always happen to you. â€ She went on to explain to me that people love to be around me because they always feel that I am the smartest person in the room, even if I am not, my complete confidence in myself commands that.She explained to me that when I speak to people, I am always speaking with complete confidence and believe what I am saying and I never doubt myself or give the appearance of it. So I think back at my life and wonder to myself; where did I learn this? I have come to the conclusion that I never learned this, I was born with this and over time I have polished it and refined it. So for me personally, I have to believe great leaders are born, not made. References Bock, Wally. Three Star leadership, 2006. http://www. threestarleadership. com/articles/bornormade. htm Conger, J. A. , and R. N. Kanungo (Eds), Charismatic Leadership in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998 Pace, Joe DR. The professional development series: Book Two: The Workplace; Interpersonal Strengths and Leadership. Published by McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY.